Generating the Fibonacci sequence is a good exercise to illustrate the concept of lazy sequences in Clojure. In this article, we will present 3 ways to create a lazy Fibonacci sequence:

  • lazy-seq
  • lazy-cat
  • iterate

We will also demonstrate two interesting features of KLIPSE:

  • how to share code with KLIPSE
  • macros usage in KLIPSE

Math and History

In mathematics, the Fibonacci numbers or Fibonacci sequence are the numbers in the following integer sequence:

1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 610 987 1597 2584 4181 6765 10946 17711 28657 46368 75025 121393 196418 317811 514229 …

or (often, in modern usage):

0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 610 987 1597 2584 4181 6765 10946 17711 28657 46368 75025 121393 196418 317811 514229 …

The first two numbers in the Fibonacci sequence are either 1 and 1, or 0 and 1, and each subsequent number is the sum of the previous two.

The Fibonacci sequence is named after Italian mathematician Leonardo of Pisa, known as Fibonacci. His 1202 book Liber Abaci introduced the sequence to Western European mathematics, although the sequence had been described earlier as Virahanka numbers in Indian mathematics.


Fibonacci with lazy-seq

Here is the doc for lazy-seq:

(lazy-seq & body)
Takes a body of expressions that returns an ISeq or nil, and yields
a Seqable object that will invoke the body only the first time seq
is called, and will cache the result and return it on all subsequent
seq calls. See also - realized?

Let’s do Fibonacci with lazy-seq:

(def fib-seq-seq
  ((fn fib [a b] 
       (lazy-seq (cons a (fib b (+ a b)))))
     0 1))

(take 30 fib-seq-seq)

Now, imagine you are very proud of your code and you’d like to share it by email, on twitter or on Clojurians Slack. How would you do that?

  • The common option is to copy/paste it => no indentation and colors
  • A more elegant way is to create a github gist => indentation, colors but the code is static
  • Another way is to share your klipse => indentation, colors and the code is dynamic and editable

In order to share your klipse, you press Ctrl-S (S is for share or save) and the url of a klipse with your code (something like….) will be displayed in an alert box and in the browser console.

Go ahead! Give it a try in the Klipse box above that contains the lazy-seq implementation of the Fibonacci sequence.

Fibonacci with lazy-cat

Here is the doc for lazy-cat:

(lazy-cat & colls)

Expands to code which yields a lazy sequence of the concatenation
of the supplied colls.  Each coll expr is not evaluated until it is

(lazy-cat xs ys zs) === (concat (lazy-seq xs) (lazy-seq ys) (lazy-seq zs))

Now, we’ll do Fibonacci with lazy-cat:

(def fib-seq-cat
  (lazy-cat [0 1] (map + (rest fib-seq-cat) fib-seq-cat)))

(take 30 fib-seq-cat)

If you prefer this version, don’t hesitate share it! Ctrl-S is your friend…

Fibonacci with iterate

Here is the doc for iterate:

(iterate f x)
Returns a lazy sequence of x, (f x), (f (f x)) etc...
f must be free of side-effects

Now, Fibonacci with iterate:

(def fib-seq-iterate
  (map first (iterate 
                 (fn [[a b]] [b (+ a b)]) [0 1])))

(take 30 fib-seq-iterate)

Do you have another interesting Fibonacci sequence implementation? Feel free to share your klipse in the comments below…

Clojure rocks!